What is Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy?
Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy is a genetic disorder, where the muscle wall (septum) between the lower chambers of heart, thickens abnormally resulting in improper functioning of the heart.
It’s often undiagnosed due to lack of significant clinical manifestations.
What are the symptoms of Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy?
- Shortness of breath, especially during exercise or lying position
- Chest pain or discomfort
- Abnormal heartbeat
- Fainting during physical activity
- Swelling in legs, feet or ankles
What are the causes of Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy?
Who are at risk of developing Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy?
- Family history of Cardiomyopathy
- Severe obesity
- Diabetes mellitus
- High blood pressure
- Alcohol intake
- Certain heart diseases such as sarcoidosis, hemochromatosis or amyloidosis
What are the consequences of Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy?
How is Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy diagnosed?
- Echocardiogram: This is commonly used to diagnose Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy. Utilizes ultrasounds to see abnormally thickened heart muscle. It also examines heart chambers and valves.
- Electrocardiogram: To measure electrical signals of the heart.
- Cardiac MRI
- Exercise test: Record’s EEG while treadmill or physical activity
- Genetic testing for Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy: To identify the gene mutation
How is Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy treated?
- ICD (Implantable cardioverter-defibrillator)
- Septal ablation (Catheter-based therapy)
- Septal myectomy (Surgery based therapy)
- A pacemaker in case of abnormal heartbeat
- Anticoagulants such as warfarin, rivaroxaban, dabigatran or apixaban in case of atrial fibrillation to prevent blood clots
- CCB’s( Calcium channel blockers) such as verapamil or diltiazem
- Beta-blockers such as metoprolol, propranolol or atenolol
Amiodarone or disopyramide to control over heart rhythm