What is high blood pressure?
- The amount of force that blood put against the artery wall to circulate throughout the body is called blood pressure
- High blood pressure occurs when the blood flows through arteries with high pressure than normal. It is termed Hypertension.
- Hypertension is classified into two different categories:
- Primary Hypertension: Also called essential hypertension, where there is no known cause. This type of hypertension develops slowly due to lifestyle, environment, or age.
- Secondary Hypertension: This type of hypertension is secondary due to health problem or medicine.
How is high blood pressure classified?
|Blood pressure Category
||Systolic blood pressure
||Diastolic blood pressure
||Less than 120
||less than 80
||120 – 129
||less than 80
|Hypertension (Stage 1)
||130 – 139
||80 – 89
|Hypertension (Stage 2)
||140 or Higher
||90 or Higher
||Higher than 180
||Higher than 120
What are the symptoms of high blood pressure?
High blood pressure has rarely noticeable symptoms includes:
- Blurred vision
- Chest pain
- Shortness of breath
- Nose bleeding
What are the risk factors of high blood pressure?
- Elderly age
- Lack of physical activity
- High salt or potassium in the diet
- Family history
- Certain chronic diseases like kidney damage, sleep apnea, or diabetes
What are the complications of high blood pressure?
- Heart attack
- Heart failure
- Metabolic syndrome
- Narrowed blood vessels in kidneys
- Narrowed blood vessels in eyes
How is high blood pressure diagnosed?
- Sphygmomanometer, a digital electronic monitor which is connected to the inflatable cuff that used to wrap the upper arm measures the blood pressure.
- During blood pressure is the measurement, the reading is recorded into two different numbers (systolic/diastolic mmHg).
- Systolic pressure: The highest level of blood pressure when heartbeats and contracts to pump blood through arteries.
- Diastolic pressure: Lowest level of blood pressure when the heart relaxes between beats.
How is high blood pressure treated?
- Diuretic acts on kidneys to help in eliminating excess sodium and water from the body
- Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE’s) inhibitors: For relaxation of blood vessels
- Angiotensin II receptor blocker (ARB’s): For relaxation of blood vessels
- Calcium channel blockers
What is your target blood pressure?
- In adults with confirmed Hypertension (High blood pressure) and a known case of Cardiovascular disease, targeted Blood pressure should be less than 130/80 mmHg
- In adults with confirmed Hypertension (High blood pressure) and no risk of Cardiovascular disease, targeted Blood pressure is less than 130/80 mmHg
- In patients > 80 years, the targeted Blood pressure should be less than 150/90 mmHg
- In patients < 80 years, the targeted Blood pressure should be less than 140/80 mmHg
- For patients with Diabetes and younger than 70 years, targeted Blood pressure is less than 130/80 mmHg
- For patients with Diabetes and lies in 70 to 80 years, targeted Blood pressure is less than 140/90 mmHg
For patients with Diabetes and older than 80 years, targeted Blood pressure is less than 150/90 mmHg