High Blood Pressure – Symptoms & Treatment


What is high blood pressure?

  • The amount of force that blood put against the artery wall to circulate throughout the body is called blood pressure
  • High blood pressure occurs when the blood flows through arteries with high pressure than normal. It is termed Hypertension.
  • Hypertension is classified into two different categories:
  1. Primary Hypertension: Also called essential hypertension, where there is no known cause. This type of hypertension develops slowly due to lifestyle, environment, or age.
  2. Secondary Hypertension: This type of hypertension is secondary due to health problem or medicine.
High Blood Pressure
High Blood Pressure

How is high blood pressure classified?

Blood pressure Category Systolic blood pressure Diastolic blood pressure
Normal Less than 120 less than 80
Elevated 120 – 129 less than 80
Hypertension (Stage 1) 130 – 139 80 – 89
Hypertension (Stage 2) 140 or Higher 90 or Higher
Hypertensive crisis Higher than 180 Higher than 120

What are the symptoms of high blood pressure?

High blood pressure has rarely noticeable symptoms includes:

  • Headaches
  • Blurred vision
  • Dizziness
  • Chest pain
  • Shortness of breath
  • Nose bleeding

What are the risk factors of high blood pressure?

  • Elderly age
  • Obesity
  • Lack of physical activity
  • Smoking
  • Alcohol
  • High salt or potassium in the diet
  • Stress
  • Family history
  • Certain chronic diseases like kidney damage, sleep apnea, or diabetes

What are the complications of high blood pressure?

  • Heart attack
  • Stroke
  • Heart failure
  • Aneurysm
  • Dementia
  • Metabolic syndrome
  • Narrowed blood vessels in kidneys
  • Narrowed blood vessels in eyes
high blood pressure - hypertension
high blood pressure – hypertension

How is high blood pressure diagnosed?

  • Sphygmomanometer, a digital electronic monitor which is connected to the inflatable cuff that used to wrap the upper arm measures the blood pressure.
  • During blood pressure is the measurement, the reading is recorded into two different numbers (systolic/diastolic mmHg).
  • Systolic pressure: The highest level of blood pressure when heartbeats and contracts to pump blood through arteries.
  • Diastolic pressure: Lowest level of blood pressure when the heart relaxes between beats.

How is high blood pressure treated?

  • Diuretic acts on kidneys to help in eliminating excess sodium and water from the body
  • Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE’s) inhibitors: For relaxation of blood vessels
  • Angiotensin II receptor blocker (ARB’s): For relaxation of blood vessels
  • Calcium channel blockers

What is your target blood pressure?

  • In adults with confirmed Hypertension (High blood pressure) and a known case of Cardiovascular disease, targeted Blood pressure should be less than 130/80 mmHg
  • In adults with confirmed Hypertension (High blood pressure) and no risk of Cardiovascular disease, targeted Blood pressure is less than 130/80 mmHg
  • In patients > 80 years, the targeted Blood pressure should be less than 150/90 mmHg
  • In patients < 80 years, the targeted Blood pressure should be less than 140/80 mmHg
  • For patients with Diabetes and younger than 70 years, targeted Blood pressure is less than 130/80 mmHg
  • For patients with Diabetes and lies in 70 to 80 years, targeted Blood pressure is less than 140/90 mmHg

For patients with Diabetes and older than 80 years, targeted Blood pressure is less than 150/90 mmHg


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