Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy


What is Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy?

  • Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy is a genetic disorder, where the muscle wall (septum) between the lower chambers of heart, thickens abnormally resulting in improper functioning of the heart.
  • It’s often undiagnosed due to lack of significant clinical manifestations.
Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy
Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy

What are the symptoms of Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy?

  • Shortness of breath, especially during exercise or lying position
  • Chest pain or discomfort
  • Abnormal heartbeat
  • Dizziness
  • Fainting during physical activity
  • Fatigue
  • Swelling in legs, feet or ankles

What are the causes of Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy?

  • Older age
  • High blood pressure
  • Gene mutations (inherited)

Who are at risk of developing Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy?

  • Family history of Cardiomyopathy
  • Severe obesity
  • Diabetes mellitus
  • High blood pressure
  • Alcohol intake
  • Certain heart diseases such as sarcoidosis, hemochromatosis or amyloidosis

What are the consequences of Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy?

  • Dilated Cardiomyopathy
  • Atrial fibrillation
  • Improper blood flow
  • Mitral valve problems
  • Heart failure
  • Sudden cardiac death

How is Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy diagnosed?

  • Echocardiogram: This is commonly used to diagnose Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy. Utilizes ultrasounds to see abnormally thickened heart muscle. It also examines heart chambers and valves.
  • Electrocardiogram: To measure electrical signals of the heart.
  • Cardiac MRI
  • Exercise test: Record’s EEG while treadmill or physical activity
  • Genetic testing for Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy: To identify the gene mutation

How is Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy treated?

Non-pharmacological treatment:

  • ICD (Implantable cardioverter-defibrillator)
  • Septal ablation (Catheter-based therapy)
  • Septal myectomy (Surgery based therapy)
  • A pacemaker in case of abnormal heartbeat

Pharmacological treatment:

  • Anticoagulants such as warfarin, rivaroxaban, dabigatran or apixaban in case of atrial fibrillation to prevent blood clots
  • CCB’s( Calcium channel blockers) such as verapamil or diltiazem
  • Beta-blockers such as metoprolol, propranolol or atenolol

Amiodarone or disopyramide to control over heart rhythm



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