ejection fraction | Dr Raghu

istockphoto-1202967048-170667a.jpg

Heart failure is a condition in which the heart can’t pump enough blood to meet the body’s needs. It’s a serious condition that requires treatment by your doctor, but there are several options available. If you’re concerned about heart failure and want to know more about your options for treatment, keep reading.

Heart failure treatment

What Is Heart Failure?

Heart failure occurs when your heart doesn’t pump blood as well as it should due to one or more problems with its cardiac function. The heart can’t pump blood as well because it has to work harder than normal just in order to keep up with the body’s needs for oxygen and nutrients. The extra effort causes structural changes in the heart over time.

Types of Heart Failure

Although there are many specific types of heart failure, the two broad categories are as follows:

  • Heart failure with preserved ejection fraction or diastolic heart failure
  • Heart failure with reduced ejection fraction or systolic heart failure

Heart failure can also be categorized depending on the side of the heart that’s affected. These include:

  • Left-sided heart failure
  • Right-sided heart failure

The treatment of heart failure depends on the type of heart failure you’ve developed. The most common treatment options include:

Beta-Blockers

Beta-blockers are a class of drugs that slow your heart rate, lower blood pressure, and reduce the force of contraction in your heart muscle. They work by blocking the effect of certain hormones that cause the heart to beat quickly. 

Beta-blockers can help you feel better if you have high blood pressure or chest pain (angina) due to coronary artery disease or atherosclerosis. But they’re not recommended for people who have low blood pressure (hypotension).

ACE Inhibitors

ACE inhibitors are a class of drugs that lower blood pressure and reduce the workload of the heart. They are used to treat high blood pressure, heart failure, and kidney problems.

ACE inhibitors include:

  • Captopril 
  • Enalapril
  • Lisinopril 
  • Ramipril 

Digoxin

If you have heart failure, your doctor may prescribe digoxin. This medication is used to slow the heart rate and increase its force of contraction in order to improve blood flow to the body. 

Diuretics

Diuretics, such as hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ), furosemide and torsemide help your kidneys get rid of excess fluid. If you have heart failure or high blood pressure, your doctor may prescribe a diuretic.

Diuretics can cause side effects like dehydration and electrolyte imbalances. They also interact with other medications. Be sure to talk to your doctor about any drug interactions before taking them.

Aldosterone Antagonists

Aldosterone antagonists work by blocking the effect of aldosterone, a hormone that causes your body to hold on to sodium and water. This excess fluid can cause heart failure symptoms, including swelling and shortness of breath.

Aldosterone antagonists are used to treat primary hypertension (high blood pressure) or heart failure. They work best when combined with other medications that block the action of angiotensin II (a hormone secreted by the kidneys).

In Conclusion

Heart failure can be managed with a variety of medications, and in some cases, it may even go away on its own. If you have heart failure, talk to your doctor about what treatments might help you feel better and live longer. We hope this article has given you some insight into the different types of treatments available and how they work!

If you or anyone you know has been experiencing symptoms of heart failure, feel free to reach out to Dr. C Raghu, one of India’s leading cardiologists.

Book Online Consultaion



    Heart Failure Treatment Blog

    DOWNLOAD PDF

    Subscribe the Hearty Life Blogs


      istockphoto-1254325549-612x612-1.jpg

      In our previous blogs, we’ve explored the causes, symptoms, and treatment options of heart failure. Also, we’ve outlined different types of heart failure in detail. You can click here to check out our previous blogs.

      In this article, we’ll discuss left ventricular ejection fraction, one of the most common parameters doctors use to diagnose heart failure. Let’s dive right in.

       

      What Is Ejection Fraction?

      Simply put, ejection fraction is a measure of the amount of blood pumped out from the heart’s lower chambers (ventricles). Ejection fraction can be of two types:

      • Left ventricular ejection fraction
      • Right ventricular ejection fraction

      Right ventricular ejection fraction is the percentage of deoxygenated blood the right ventricle pushes into the lungs. On the other hand, left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) is the percentage of oxygen-rich blood pumped out from the left ventricle into the arteries that carry blood to vital organs, muscles, and tissues.

      Typically, doctors use the term “ejection fraction” when they refer to LVEF. If your heart is healthy and well functioning, the ejection fraction will range between 55% to 66%. An ejection fraction lower than 50% is a sign of systolic heart failure (or heart failure with reduced ejection fraction).

      However, it’s possible for you to develop heart failure with an ejection fraction above 50%. In such cases, there’s a problem with the relaxed (or diastolic) phase of the heart’s pumping cycle. The condition is known as diastolic heart failure (or heart failure with preserved ejection fraction).

      It’s worth noting that an abnormally high ejection fraction (above 70%) could be an indication of a heart condition like hypertrophic cardiomyopathy.

      Symptoms of Low Ejection Fraction

      As mentioned earlier, a low ejection fraction (below 50%) is a sign of heart failure. It means that the heart is unable to pump an adequate amount of blood into the arteries. It results in a shortage of blood supply to various organs. Also, it causes excess blood to back up in the lungs.

      The most common symptoms of low LVEF include:

      • Shortness of breath
      • Mental confusion
      • Pale or bluish skin color
      • Swelling in the abdomen, feet, and legs
      • Weight gain (due to fluid buildup)
      • Loss of appetite
      • Coughing and wheezing

      Treatment of Low Ejection Fraction

      Cardiologists use a wide array of tests to detect a low ejection fraction and its underlying cause. These include ECG, echocardiogram, chest X-ray, etc. The course of treatment depends on the underlying disorder that’s causing low LVEF.

      The most common treatment options include medications, such as digoxin (to strengthen the heart’s contractions), beta-blockers (to ease the heart’s workload), and diuretics (to minimize fluid buildup in the body).

      Additionally, your doctor will recommend lifestyle changes, such as weight loss, exercise, and a healthy diet to improve LVEF. Also, it’s a good idea to avoid alcohol consumption and tobacco smoking.

      In Conclusion

      A low LVEF is a prominent sign of systolic heart failure. It can cause symptoms like shortness of breath and fluid buildup in the body. If you’ve been diagnosed with a low ejection fraction, consult your doctor to explore your treatment options.

      Dr. C Raghu is an eminent cardiologist with years of experience. He specializes in interventional cardiology. If you or anyone you know is experiencing symptoms of heart failure, feel free to consult Dr. Raghu today.

      Book Online Consultaion



        Left Ventricular Ejection Fraction Blog

        DOWNLOAD PDF

        Subscribe the Hearty Life Blogs


          symptom-heart-faliure.jpg

           

          Heart failure is an umbrella term for a set of physical symptoms arising due to the gradual deterioration in the heart’s pumping ability. The term “congestive heart failure” was traditionally used because the condition resulted in fluid buildup and congestion in the lungs.

          However, doctors and medical researchers have found that it causes a wide array of other symptoms. That’s why they now refer to the condition as heart failure.

          What Happens in Congestive Heart Failure?

          A healthy human heart relaxes and contracts nearly 100,000 times a day and pumps more than 2,000 gallons of blood throughout the body. The cardiovascular system also includes a network of arteries and veins to transport deoxygenated and oxygenated blood to and from the heart. If any part of the system falters, it can disrupt the flow of blood to vital organs.

          Heart failure is characterized by a progressive decline in the heart’s power to pump blood. When that happens, the heart goes through a series of structural changes (knowns as cardiac remodeling) and beats faster to pump more blood.

          Also, the blood vessels constrict to stabilize blood pressure and restrict blood supply to non-critical organs like the skin and kidneys. When blood flow to the kidneys reduces, it compels the body to retain more fluid and sodium.

          All these short-term fixes result in more damage and cause even more stress to the heart muscles. That, in turn, results in further deterioration of the heart’s pumping action.

          Congestive Heart Failure Symptoms: A Closer Look

           

          The symptoms of heart failure vary depending on whether they’re caused due to a lack of oxygen or an increase in fluid build.

          Lack of oxygen supply results in the following symptoms :

          • Confusion
          • Weight gain
          • Fatigue
          • Discolored or bluish skin

          Excess sodium and fluid buildup in the body causes the following symptoms:

          • Lung congestion
          • Shortness of breath
          • Coughing and wheezing
          • Loss of appetite
          • Swelling of feet and abdomen

          Causes and Types of Congestive Heart Failure

          The most common causes of heart failure include:

          • Coronary artery disease (Narrowing of arteries due to cholesterol buildup)
          • Damaged or dying heart tissue due to a heart attack
          • Cardiomyopathy (damage to the heart muscles)
          • Heart rhythm disturbances due to atrial fibrillation
          • Underlying medical conditions like hypertension and diabetes

          There are various ways to categorize congestive heart failure. Depending on the part of the heart’s pumping that’s affected due to heart failure, it can be of the following types:

          • Systolic heart failure or heart failure with a reduced ejection fraction
          • Diastolic heart failure or heart failure with a preserved ejection fraction

          Also, depending on the side of the heart that’s affected, heart failure can be categorized as left-sided failure and right-sided failure. The treatment approach a doctor will use depends on the type of heart failure a patient has developed.

          Stages of Heart Failure

          The American College of Cardiology and the American Heart Association has outlined four stages to denote the progression of heart failure. While Stage A is characterized by risk factors like underlying medical conditions, stage B shows structural changes in a patient’s heart. The more advanced stages (C and D) present visible symptoms.

          In Conclusion

          Heart failure (also known as congestive heart failure) is a progressive condition caused by the heart’s inability to pump blood adequately. It results in symptoms like shortness of breath, fatigue, weight gain, and brain fog.

          Dr. C Raghu is an eminent cardiologist with more than two decades of experience. If you or someone you know has developed congestive heart failure symptoms, consult Dr. Raghu to explore your treatment options.

          Book Online Consultaion



            Understanding Congestive Heart Failure Symptoms Blog

            DOWNLOAD PDF

            Subscribe the Hearty Life Blogs


              Diastolic-heart-failure-img.jpg

              In our previous articles, we’ve discussed the symptoms of heart failure and the steps to diagnose the same. However, the course of treatment varies for every patient based on the type of heart failure they’ve developed.

              Depending on the part of the heart’s pumping cycle that’s been affected, there are two types of heart failure. In this blog, we’ll take a closer look at diastolic dysfunction and its symptoms.

              What Causes Diastolic Dysfunction?

              diastolic dysfunction

              The diastolic phase refers to the part of the heart’s pumping cycle when the ventricles (lower chambers) relax and let blood flow in from the atria (upper chambers). Diastolic dysfunction is a condition in which the ventricles don’t relax enough. That, in turn, prevents the normal amount of blood from entering the heart.

              Diastolic dysfunction is caused when the heart muscles become thicker and stiffer than usual. It’s more common in older women with hypertension and diabetes. If left untreated, it can lead to diastolic heart failure (also known as heart failure with preserved ejection fraction).

              Related : Understanding Congestive Heart Failure Symptoms

              What Does Preserved Ejection Fraction Mean?

              Ejection fraction refers to the volume of blood pumped out from the heart’s left ventricle with each contraction. For a healthy heart, the number falls in the range of 55% to 65%. A lower ejection fraction is one of the most common indicators of heart failure.

              However, it’s worth noting that many people with diastolic dysfunction have an ejection fraction of 50% or more (which is known as preserved ejection fraction). That means the left ventricle expels an adequate amount of oxygenated blood.

              However, the heart muscle doesn’t relax enough to let a sufficient quantity of blood in. That, in turn, causes the excess blood to back up in the lungs and results in fluid buildup in the feet and abdomen.

              How to differentiate systolic from diastolic dysfunction ?

              diastolic dysfunction

              In contrast to systolic dysfunction where the heart muscle is “weak”, in diastolic dysfunction the heart is “stiff”. This means that the heart is unable to pump blood out of the heart in systolic dysfunction whereas the heart is unable to accept further blood in diastolic dysfunction. Both conditions lead to congestion or fluid accumulation in various organs of the body. Differentiation of heart failure from systolic and diastolic dysfunction is not possible as both diseases present with similar symptoms. 

              Which conditions lead to Diastolic dysfunction?

              • Diastolic dysfunction appears consequent to uncontrolled or long-standing diabetes
              • Hypertension
              • Obesity as well as elderly people
              • Women and atrial fibrillation

              The best way to prevent and treat diastolic dysfunction is by effective control of the diseases mentioned above.

              Symptoms of Diastolic Dysfunction

              The most common symptom of diastolic dysfunction is congestion and shortness of breath due to the buildup of blood and fluid in the lungs. Breathing difficulties can get particularly worse during exertion or when lying.

              Other symptoms of diastolic dysfunction include:

              • Coughing and wheezing (due to lung congestion)
              • Loss of appetite and nausea (due to fluid buildup around the liver and in the stomach)
              • Swollen feet, legs, and abdomen (due to fluid accumulation)

              If you experience any of the given symptoms, it’s crucial to consult a doctor for a proper diagnosis.

              Treatment of Diastolic Dysfunction

              Treatment of diastolic dysfunction involves a combination of medications (diuretics or water pills) and lifestyle changes. In severe cases, a patient might need left ventricular assist devices or a heart transplant.

              Is Diastolic Dysfunction Serious?

              In the long run, diastolic dysfunction can lead to diastolic heart failure. That, in turn, increases your risk of hospitalization and death. Therefore, you should pay close attention to your symptoms and reach out to a doctor whenever you notice anything unusual.

              Dr. C Raghu is a renowned cardiologist who specializes in interventional cardiology. He has decades of experience in treating patients with different heart conditions. If you or anyone you know has developed symptoms like shortness of breath, swollen feet, loss of appetite, etc., contact Dr. Raghu to explore your treatment options.

              Book Online Consultaion



                What Are the Symptoms of Diastolic Dysfunction ? – Blog

                DOWNLOAD PDF

                Subscribe the Hearty Life Blogs


                  Left-heart-failiure.jpg

                  Depending on the side of the heart that’s been affected, heart failure can be of two types – left-sided and right-sided. We’ve already discussed the causes and symptoms of right-sided heart failure in one of our previous blogs.

                  It’s now time for us to dig deeper into left-sided heart failure, which is the most likely cause of right-sided heart failure. Let’s jump right in.

                  Related: What Is a Normal Ejection Fraction by Age?

                  What Is Left-Sided Heart Failure?

                  left sided heart failure

                  Left-sided heart failure is characterized by a decline in the heart’s pumping function. In this condition, the heart gradually loses its ability to pump blood from the left ventricle into the arteries.

                  The ejection fraction for a patient with left-sided heart failure is often lower than 50%. That, in turn, leads to a buildup of blood in the lungs and fluid in the body. Also, left-sided heart failure depletes vital organs of oxygen-rich blood.

                  Related: What Is Systolic Heart Failure?

                  What Are the Symptoms of Left-Sided Heart Failure?

                  The most common left-sided heart failure symptoms include:

                  • Shortness of breath
                  • Coughing and wheezing
                  • Weight gain (due to fluid buildup)

                  Additionally, a lack of an adequate blood supply to the brain can cause confusion. Also, it can result in fatigue.

                  What Causes Left-Sided Heart Failure?

                  Left-sided heart failure is the result of a gradual weakening of the heart’s left ventricle. It can happen due to underlying conditions, such as coronary artery disease, hypertension, and heart valve damage. It can also be the result of heart muscle damage due to a previous heart attack.

                  Related: Understanding Congestive Heart Failure Symptoms

                  Treatment of Left-Sided Heart Failure

                  Doctors treat left-sided heart failure based on its underlying cause. They can prescribe medication, such as ACE inhibitors and beta-blockers, to manage conditions like hypertension. Additionally, many patients are prescribed diuretic pills to prevent fluid buildup due to heart failure.

                  Left-sided heart failure treatment also involves a healthy diet and lifestyle changes. For instance, a doctor might recommend that you follow an exercise routine and lose weight. Also, they’ll ask you to avoid smoking and alcohol consumption.

                  Left-Sided Heart Failure vs. Right-Sided Heart Failure

                  left sided heart failure

                   

                  In right-sided heart failure, the right ventricle becomes weak and has trouble pumping deoxygenated blood to the lungs. It’s usually a result of progression of a left-sided heart failure. People with right heart failure present with swelling of feet, face, abdomen and distended pulsatile neck veins. They can also present with generalised weakness and easy fatiguability. 

                  When the left ventricle doesn’t pump out an adequate amount of oxygenated blood to the circulatory system, some of the excess blood flows back into the lungs. This leads to breathlessness as the predominant symptom of left heart failure. This breathlessness can present initially on unaccustomed exertion to progress with less severe exercise and finally to breathlessness on lying flat. Left heart failure in turn, makes it difficult for the right ventricle to pump deoxygenated blood to the lungs. In the long run, it exerts the walls of the right ventricle and results in right-sided heart failure.

                  In Conclusion

                  Left-sided heart failure is a serious condition that can result in organ damage and right-sided heart failure. The condition can be treated with a combination of medicines, like beta-blockers and diuretics, and lifestyle changes.

                  Dr. C Raghu is an eminent cardiologist with more than two decades of experience. He’s been treating patients with various heart conditions, helping them live longer and healthier lives. If you or anyone you know has developed symptoms of left-sided heart failure, don’t hesitate to consult Dr. Raghu right away.

                  Book Online Consultaion



                    Left-Sided Heart Failure – Blog

                    DOWNLOAD PDF

                    Subscribe the Hearty Life Blogs


                      Heart-failure.jpg

                      Heart failure can be categorized into different types depending on various factors. While most conditions cause similar symptoms, clear identification of the type of heart failure is crucial for doctors to determine the proper course of treatment.

                      You can check out our previous blogs for a detailed glimpse of heart failure symptoms. In this article, we’ll take a closer look at different types of heart failure. Let’s get started.

                      Diastolic vs. Systolic Heart Failure

                      Systolic heart failure is a condition characterized by an ejection fraction lower than 50%. Also known as heart failure with reduced ejection fraction, it’s the result of a problem in the contraction phase of the heart’s pumping cycle.

                      It happens when the left ventricle weakens and fails to contract properly and pump an adequate amount of oxygenated blood into the arteries. As the condition worsens, it can compromise the right ventricle, too.

                      Diastolic heart failure represents a problem in the relaxed phase of the heart’s pumping cycle. It happens when the ventricles become stiff and thick and can’t relax enough. That means an adequate amount of blood doesn’t fill the heart, causing it to back up in the lungs. Also known as heart failure with preserved ejection fraction, the condition is more common in elderly women with hypertension or diabetes.

                      Left-Sided vs. Right-Sided Heart Failure

                      In left-sided heart failure, the left ventricle becomes weak and doesn’t expel enough blood into the arteries. It causes fluid buildup in the lungs and leads to shortness of breath, coughing, and wheezing. Also, it results in a lack of adequate blood supply to the organs, resulting in confusion, fatigue, and pale skin color.

                      The most common causes of left-sided heart failure include coronary artery disease, hypertension, heart valve damage, and dilated cardiomyopathy.

                      Right-sided heart failure is characterized by a weak right ventricle, due to which an adequate amount of deoxygenated blood doesn’t reach the lungs. Instead, it flows back into the veins and results in swelling in the legs and abdomen. The most common cause of right-sided heart failure is left-sided heart failure.

                      Compensated vs. Decompensated Heart Failure

                      When a patient has heart failure, but their heart is functioning well enough not to cause any visible symptoms, the condition is known as compensated heart failure. As the condition progresses, it causes serious symptoms, such as breathlessness and fluid buildup, that require medical attention. This condition is known as decompensated heart failure.

                      Decompensated heart failure is usually the result of a gradual deterioration of the heart pumping capacity due to pre-existing heart failure. However, if the onset of the condition is new and sudden, it is known as acute decompensated heart failure.

                      End-Stage Heart Failure

                      The American College of Cardiology and the American Heart Association have defined four distinct stages of heart failure. End-stage heart failure refers to the final (most advanced stage), where a patient’s symptoms are severe enough to require hospitalization. Also, they might need specialized treatment to stay out of the hospital.

                      In Conclusion

                      Heart failure can be of various types, depending on its underlying causes and the severity of symptoms. Doctors use tests like ECG, echocardiogram, stress testing, etc., to identify the type of heart failure and determine the right course of treatment.

                      If you or anyone you know has been experiencing symptoms of heart failure, feel free to reach out to Dr. C Raghu, one of India’s leading cardiologists.

                      Book Online Consultaion



                        Types of Heart Failure Blog

                        DOWNLOAD PDF

                        Subscribe the Hearty Life Blogs












                          040-4456-9955


                          24/7 EMERGENCY NUMBER

                          Call us now if you are in a medical emergency need, we will reply swiftly and provide you with a medical aid.



                          Copyright © 2022, Dr. Raghu. All rights reserved.